Hwange National Park’s eastern boundary, which stretches for over 220kms, is maintained with the co-operation of adjacent communities. CAMPFIRE Communities in Bulilima district from Point 222 at corner with Botswana, all the way northwards through Korodziba/Makona in Tsholotsho, connecting to the Ngamo Forest boundary, provide an important conservation buffer zone. Tsholotsho district was granted Appropriate Authority Status for the management of wildlife in 1991, and has 11 Wards that benefit from the CAMPFIRE Programme.

CAMPFIRE Philosophy and Human-Wildlife Conflict

Due to poor rainfall, the absence of rural infrastructure, most notably roads and, in some cases, the presence of tsetse fly, human settlement and cultivation has been minimal in most of the areas where CAMPFIRE was first implemented. Typically, the wildlife producing areas are located towards the margins of the country and nearly all are adjacent to state protected wildlife areas. In these areas, the local communities have voluntarily set aside large tracts of wild land and adopted wildlife production systems, both consumptive and non-consumptive, based on free ranging game whose populations varies considerably between districts and within districts.