1. Diversification


CAMPFIRE has made a real effort to diversify its revenue generating activities beyond hunting of wildlife on community land. A true diversification of income sources will truly make CAMPFIRE a sustainable development vehicle, even for communities that do not live in places with abundant megafauna. Some of the other piloted projects include:


Live Animal Sales - An occasional source of revenue. In 1994, Guruve district sold 10 roan antelope, earning US $50,000 in the process.


Meat Cropping - Cropping impala and other abundant wildlife species for their meat and selling their skins is a common occurrence in CAMPFIRE areas, done under the supervision of the Department of National Parks. Skins and ivory from 'problem animal control' are sold and the revenues accrue to the community.


Beekeeping - Keeping bees can yield substantial profits for low income communities. If people are trained and provided with some bee-keeping equipment, they can benefit from the abundance of wildflowers on their land by producing honey.


Crafts - Rural areas often have abundant, under utilised human resources, as employment is difficult to find. However, many people living in urban areas want crafts and furnishings with a real human touch, rather than mass-produced items. CAMPFIRE helps local communities to join together to market their traditional crafts, providing economies of scale to make them more competitive in the modern world.


Fishing - CAMPFIRE encourages local communities to manage and market their natural areas for fishing holidays, such as the Gairezi Ecotourism Project. Much of the fish eaten by Zimbabweans come from Lake Kariba, where the systems of fishing control are threatened by illegal over-fishing and serious stock depletion in some areas. CAMPFIRE has engaged fishing communities and helped them to engage the government to draw up a sustainable fishery management plan called LAKESHORE.


Crocodile eggs - With the growth of the commercial crocodile ranching industry in Zimbabwe, nests of wild crocodiles have become valuable resources. After negotiation, crocodile farmers pay the local communities a fee for all the eggs they collect from river banks in their wards.


Mopane Worms - Every year in the Mopane woodlands found in the West and South of Zimbabwe erupt in a writhing mass of caterpillars known locally as Amacimbi. Locals collect these creatures and dry them for a valuable protein supplement in stews. However, a good caterpillar harvest depends on keeping the mopane woodlands that support the caterpillars in good condition: no trees = no caterpillars.








CAMPFIRE - Self Sustaining Development and Conservation



Sport Hunting


Hides and Ivory












































































































The table above shows that CAMPFIRE revenues have been steadily growing since the project's inception. At least 55% of this money has gone directly to Producer Communities where it can be reinvested in development projects, 15% goes to the Rural District Council, 26% goes to support CAMPFIRE management at the Council or Community Level and 4% comes to the CAMPFIRE Association.


Tourism has suffered greatly since the onset of Zimbabwe's social and political turmoil connected to the 2000 land confiscation events, but hunting revenues have continued to come in.




  1. Market linkages










iii. Technical Support Services